Ray Tracing News

"Light Makes Right"

September 30, 2006

Volume 19, Number 1

Compiled by Eric Haines, Autodesk, 10 Brown Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 [email protected]. Opinions expressed are mine, not Autodesk's.

All contents are copyright (c) 2005-2006, all rights reserved by the individual authors

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Archive location: http://www.acm.org/tog/resources/RTNews/html/
(text version at http://www.acm.org/tog/resources/RTNews/text/)

You may also want to check out the Ray Tracing News issue guide, the index to the Ray Tracing News, and the (ancient) ray tracing FAQ.


Contents:


Introduction

SIGGRAPH 2006 has come and gone, and I'll report on it later in this issue. But more significantly RT'06, the IEEE Symposium on Interactive Ray Tracing, has just come and gone. See http://www.sci.utah.edu/RT06/. Unfortunately, I was unable to attend. In my area of the industry, Mental Ray gets to trace 99.9% of the rays, the other 0.1% getting traced by me are mostly for selection testing. The program for the conference is up at http://www.sci.utah.edu/RT06/organization.html. You can order a copy of the proceedings for $40 if you're old-school like me and like the dead trees version - get one now, there are only a few left.

Of the papers presented, the paper "On Building kd-Trees for Ray Tracing, and on doing that in O(N log N)", http://www.sci.utah.edu/~wald/Publications/2006/NlogN/download/kdtree.pdf, has be around in preprint since around January, when I read it. This paper elaborates on a short paragraph buried on page 80 of Havran's thesis. The cool bit (to me) is section 4.3: Say you are building a kd-tree, top down. You sort the objects along the X, Y, and Z axes and then walk through each axis, looking for the best split. You find a split and make two lists. You then sort each of the sublists by X, Y, and Z again, for each child, on down the tree. That's a lot of sorting. This paper talks about how to use the sorted list and split it into two sorted lists, one for each child. The way I would do this is, after the split, mark all the objects as in the first or second child, or both (in actuality you could even use a function on the sorted list that would query the state of each object, first/second/both). Now walk through each sorted list, X, Y, and Z. Check the first element in a list: did it go into the first, second, or both child cells? Move it accordingly, making a copy if it's in both. Do this for each succeeding element. At the end the sorted list is split into two separate lists for the children, already sorted. (And if you're smart, you can split the list for the axis you actually split on even faster, since this axis determined the status of the objects). So the only sorting that had to be done was at root cell, the sorted lists get reused. There are other interesting bits in this paper, but to me this was the main one, which is given a thorough presentation in both theory and practice. Certainly this same approach can be applied to bounding box hierarchies built top-down via sorting.

Vlastimil described this method to me at SIGGRAPH 2005, and I loved it. Also, Jeff Mahovsky ran across it in Vlastimil's thesis and realized its usefulness, which impresses me no end - it's barely touched on in the thesis. Jeff points out that it could also be applied to bounding volume hierarchies. Since Ingo and Vlastimil were preparing the paper above, I didn't mention it last issue. Vlastimil has further notes about the idea at http://www.cgg.cvut.cz/~havran/DISSVH/kdtreeconstruction.txt.

I don't think I'll talk about any of the other papers, as I haven't read most of them and the ones I read I reviewed for the symposium, so don't want to lose anonymity. There are some good ones, go seek these out! Next issue (which will be quite soon, in fact - no, really) I hope to have a report on how RT'06 went, as well as information on where RT'07 will be.

Late breaking news, Sept. 26: http://news.com.com/Intel+pledges+80+cores+in+five+years/2100-1006_3-6119618.html. To quote the key bits, "Intel has built a prototype of a processor with 80 cores that can perform a trillion floating point operations per second.... The chips are capable of exchanging data at a terabyte a second, Otellini said during a keynote speech. The company hopes to have these chips ready for commercial production within a five-year window." Sign me up for a sample.

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Ray Tracing Roundup

If you haven't visited the POV-Ray Hall of Fame in awhile, it's worth a look: http://hof.povray.org/

If you just can't get enough, check out the POVCOMP competition results from 2004: http://www.povcomp.com/results.php - the kitchen (http://www.povcomp.com/entries/105.php) is so far beyond my own ancient kitchen scene, it's great to see. An advantage of the POVCOMP site is that many of the data files for the scenes are available for download; nice test data.

________

I would like to let you know that a number of researchers and amateurs have formed a dedicated forum on ray tracing:

http://ompf.org/forum

Active topics include kd/SAH and recent advances in ray tracing dynamic scenes (based on Havran's work and the BIH paper by Wächter).

Here are some more representative threads:

http://ompf.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=159

This thread was started after the author of the BIH paper ('Toxie' on the forum) passed some preview copies to members of the forum. We had working replications of his idea before the actual release of the paper, plus a very vivid discussion. More discussion of the merits of this 'new' scheme here: http://ompf.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=160

'TBP' is our compiler / CPU / optimization expert. He discusses a fast way to build SAH-based kd-trees in NlogN time: http://ompf.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=78

Full realtime raytracer source code including SAH-based kd-tree building: http://ompf.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=107

Besides implementation details, optimization hints and papers, we share data sets (see relevant section) and of course screenshots.

More about BIH: Just a couple of days before Wächter & Keller's paper appeared at http://graphics.uni-ulm.de/BIH.pdf, Sven Woop & friends released a paper on almost the same topic: http://graphics.cs.uni-sb.de/Publications/2006/bkd_gh06_final.pdf. This paper is more oriented towards a hardware implementation, but still it's very much the same idea. Main difference is that they don't rebuild the tree completely for each frame but rather update it (in hardware). A couple of days after the BIH paper, Havran released a paper on the same subject: http://domino.mpi-inf.mpg.de/internet/reports.nsf/NumberView/2006-4-004. All of a sudden everyone solved the problem of rendering dynamic scenes simultaneously.

Last note to give you an impression of the impact of this new BIH approach: A spatial structure for a 10k triangle model can be build in 6ms on a single core 1.4Ghz Pentium-M (~185ms for the 174k Fairy Forest). The resulting structure is fast enough for 6M rays/s, which means that a dynamic 10k model can be rendered at interactive frame rates. As always, rendering scales linearly with number of cores and core speed; tree construction also scales with the number of cores. Intel's forthcoming Conroe @ 4.1Ghz will let us write ray traced games.

[Next issue I'll talk more about BIH and friends. - Eric]

- Jacco Bikker

________

"Manta" is a portable open-source interactive ray tracer from the University of Utah. Find it here:

http://code.sci.utah.edu/Manta/index.php/Main_Page

________

Just a quick note to announce that the complete C++ source code for the Render Cache is now available under GPL license at:

http://www.graphics.cornell.edu/research/interactive/rendercache/

The Render Cache is an interactive display adapter/system for use with ray-based renderers published in EGSR '99 and '02 (see page for more details). I've had requests for code, but hadn't been able to release it until now.

- Bruce Walter

________

NVIDIA now provides their high-end GPU-accelerated renderer Gelato for free: http://www.nvidia.com/page/gz_home.html. You can also buy a professional version, which gives you support, the Sorbetto fast relighter, and some other bits needed for production rendering.

________

The "journal of graphics tools" website has been reorganized. Of particular interest to ray tracers is their page http://jgt.akpeters.com/topics/?topic_id=19, which lists papers relevant to intersection computations. See my article later in this issue about chewing up too much time trying out some of the bounding box intersectors.

There are many good articles here, with downloadable code. For example, Marta Löfsted and Tomas Akenine-Möller did comparisons of a huge number of ray/triangle tests on a wide range of machines, etc. Check it out at: http://jgt.akpeters.com/papers/LofstedtAkenineMoller05/ - there is code there for all the different intersectors tested.

________

In RTNv14n1 I wondered if Thatcher Ulrich's "Loose Octrees" could be used for ray tracing. Someone actually tried this scheme out for ray tracing dynamic scenes, see http://graphics.tu-bs.de/publications/Eisemann06ACO.pdf.

________

A paper you might have missed, from the Intel ray tracing research group (specifically, Jim Hurley) on their experiments: http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/2005/volume09issue02/art01_ray_tracing/p01_abstract.htm. PDF at http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/2005/volume09issue02/art01_ray_tracing/vol09_art01.pdf.

________

I'm a believer that the key ideas in most papers can be summarized in a paragraph (maybe two). The rest is background, definitions, and proof that the idea works - all important to a full understanding and belief in the work presented, but the key bit is the idea itself. "Short" is not synonymous with "obvious" (a fact all too many reviewers forget). So I liked seeing this site, where the person does just that, summing up their project about 6D classification and subdivision of space for ray tracing animated scenes:

http://madbean.com/2005/honours-project/

________

"Radiosity: A Programmer's Perspective", by Ian Ashdown (Wiley 1994), is now available for free from Lighting Analysts. The downloadable ZIP file includes C++ source code for HELIOS, a fully-functional radiosity renderer.

See http://www.agi32.com/Extra/TechnicalDocs/technicalDocuments.htm for details.

[Yes, this book's "old", but good. If you're looking to understand and actually write code to perform mesh-based radiosity, it's a great place to start.]

________

Christer Ericson's book "Real-Time Collision Detection" is an excellent resource, and there is a fair bit of overlap with techniques we use in ray tracing. The slides for a talk on numerical robustness are available at http://realtimecollisiondetection.net/pubs/. I recommend reading them over; these are elements that everyone should know and follow, if you want to build a truly robust and general system. The basic point: epsilon is not 1e-5, it needs to scale with the size of the environment in which you work. Christer goes a good way further on the topic here, and in his book, than I've seen elsewhere - check it out. There's a bit more about this book further on in this issue.

________

Too short for an article, but interesting - Chris Cason writes about POV-Ray and why it uses doubles for a lot of its math:

We use doubles for most stuff internally (bounding is done with floats, though). One reason is that we find that otherwise, we get too much accumulated error when having multiple rays in a chain (e.g. many reflections, refraction, whatever). This may not be noticeable in a still image but in an animation it can really jar.

________

If you need to convert files from different formats, the best free solution I've found is MilkShape 3D, http://www.swissquake.ch/chumbalum- soft/ms3d/index.html. It's mainly for games, but supports a large number of common formats. Second place is Blender, http://www.blender.org. I personally can't use this modeller worth a darn, but I can figure out the importer and exporter functions, for the most part.

________

OK, I like optical illusion sites and suchlike. Here are a bunch:

Brilliant paintwork, by the artist Felice Varini: http://www.2loop.com/3drooms.html. Using a projector, you could do the same thing, using tape or yarn to make the pattern that is projected. Vincent Scheib made one in his office building with post-it notes, which is more subtle as the pattern is then less obvious. For more, see some videos by the artist: http://www.varini.org/05vid/vid01.html. A bit more at http://www.galeriehoffmann.de/cards/varini1.htm, which is Philipp Slusallek's father's gallery (small world!).

Simply wonderful: http://www.flickr.com/photos/w00kie/sets/180637/show/

I've seen reversed color illusions before, but this one's really good: http://www.johnsadowski.com/big_spanish_castle.php

Tilt-shift photography, making real-world scenes look like miniatures: http://www.gerardpetremand.ch/Html/sil_1.html and even better http://blog.so-net.ne.jp/photolog/archive/c22183. On the flip side, architectural models with people added in: http://www.neatorama.com/2006/09/27/urban-fiction-building-miniature-art/ - see the site itself for what I mean.

Some nice animated works: http://persci.mit.edu/gaz/main-frameset.html

Madness: use Illustrator and Photoshop, 2D tools, to create a 3D scene: http://www.bertmonroy.com/fineart/text/fineart_damen.htm

Best visual illusions of the year (some are a bit too subtle, but an interesting idea for a contest): http://illusioncontest.neuralcorrelate.com/index.php?module=pagemaster&PAGE_user_op=view_page&PAGE_id=62&MMN_position=33:30

A clever display: http://www.tupajumi.com/pingpongpixel/index2.htm

Keep on zooming: http://interact10ways.com/usa/information_interactive.htm

Old idea, but fun: http://www.neave.com/strobe/

Some classics (and new ones): http://www.grand-illusions.com/opticalillusions/, but mostly a fun place to browse some interesting stuff: http://www.grand-illusions.com. I like the non-transitive and Sicherman dice.

________

http://www.cmu.edu/PR/releases06/060613_3d.html - the usual photo to model stuff, despite the hype, but the interesting factoid was this:

Identifying vertical and horizontal surfaces and the orientation of those surfaces provides much of the information necessary for understanding the geometric context of an entire scene. Only about three percent of surfaces in a typical photo are at an angle, they have found.

I thought the 3% figure interesting. Of course, knowing which are the 3% is the tricky part. The movies are pretty good: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dhoiem/projects/popup/index.html

________

The Royal Society has digitized & onlined all of its publications (1665-present). Access is free until December: http://www.pubs.royalsoc.ac.uk/index.cfm?page=1373

This is an unbelievable sci/tech resource -- 60,000 articles by folks from Newton and Leibniz to Hawking and Chandrasekhar.

Annoyingly, they'll start charging for access after December. Grab the good parts while it's still free.

- Ronen Barzel

________

This is one reason why reality will always beat rendered images: http://pic1.funtigo.com/valuca?g=25544746&cr=1 - if we rendered scenes similar to a few of these we'd be laughed at from making unrealistic images.

________

I noticed the ray tracing FAQ has moved (the raytracingnews.org site was pointing at a URL now hijacked for p0rn, of course - why would this ever work?). The FAQ now lives at http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/rayfaq/.

________

If you have a deep-seated need to click on more links, skip ahead to the SIGGRAPH report at the end of this issue.

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Notes on Efficient Ray Tracing, by Solomon Boulos and Eric Haines

Eric here: Once upon a time there were salesmen who would try to sell families a set of encyclopedias. One of the dirty little secrets of encyclopedias was that no one read them. I'm starting to think it's the same for SIGGRAPH DVDs, especially for the course notes. There are a lot of little hidden bits in some courses' notes that rarely get noticed.

The real-time ray tracing course in 2005 had a little article by Solomon Boulos called "Notes on efficient ray tracing". One idea is worth a separate article, the next one. Here I'm just going to pass on two quick ones from Solomon that I hadn't seen elsewhere before.

An idea from Steve Parker:
"...leads to an optimization present in some interactive ray tracers: if you don't allow objects to be placed inside your dielectrics [transparent objects], you can avoid a scene intersection test for transmitted rays and only perform a test against the dielectric object. This is an interesting optimization because it offers a huge performance benefit for large scenes containing dielectrics (imagine a glass coffee table in a complex scene)."

So simple an idea! Why hadn't I thought of it? I guess I never trusted our users not to shove objects into the transparent solids. But if your system is bound to such a constraint, it's a big win.

"An excellent code for box-triangle overlap is on Tomas Akenine-M¨oller's web site. It is faster and more stable than previous methods and very simple to add to your code library. I strongly recommend that any object you are inserting into your grid is tested to make sure it actually overlaps your grid cell. This simple change gave a 15-17% boost in performance for a simple scene with the Stanford bunny. Other box-object tests also exist, and a list of them can be found on the Real-Time Rendering website (http://www.realtimerendering.com/int)."

Well, I knew about Tomas' box-triangle test, and it's clear that if a triangle is put in only those grid cells it overlaps then the ray trace will be more efficient. What I liked was seeing some solid numbers on how doing this optimization was a fairly noticeable win. This result is confirmed in the Utah paper this year, "Ray Tracing Animated Scenes using Coherent Grid Traversal"; the main drawback for them is that the ray tracing savings from doing tri/box testing in advance were offset by the cost of the testing itself. Solomon also confirmed that Tomas' tri/box test is currently the fastest known test, of the ones he tried.

You can find some other interesting papers on ray tracing by Solomon here: http://www.cs.utah.edu/~boulos/research.htm

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Ray-Box Sorting, by Solomon Boulos and Eric Haines

This topic arose from conversations with Solomon on optimizations (see the next article). I (Eric) am writing it up, but credit for the idea should go to Solomon (or, really, I guess, Brandon, along with anyone else who discovered it independently). The basic idea is simple (as most good ideas are): You form a binary tree bounding volume hierarchy from the top down by splitting along some axis, XYZ, recursively. At each parent node, note which plane was used to do the splitting. One child will be "below" this splitting plane, the other "above". Now, when tracing rays, use the ray's direction and splitting plane to quickly determine which box to intersect first. For example, if the splitting plane was along the Y axis, and the test ray's direction has a negative Y component to it, then test the bounding box that was more "above" the Y axis than "below" it. From Brandon Mansfield's page:

    if (direction[axis] < 0) {
        first = right; second = left;
    } else {
        first = left; second = right;
    }

The whole goal is simply to favor first testing children that are closer to the ray's origin, in a rough sort of way. By doing so, you favor finding the closest intersection early on, thereby trimming time when testing against the rest of the hierarchy.

Solomon writes: "This includes my ordered traversal thing that was rediscovered -- I claim that Brian Smits came up with the idea first in some previous RTNews, it was lost for a time and then Brandon Mansfield rediscovered it http://datamoon.net/projects/raytracer/index.php?page=orderedbvh, and then sadly Pete forgot about it within one year and I rediscovered it again but used the signbits trick from the Williams JGT box test to make the code super clean and more likely to use conditional moves, then Jeff Mahovsky implemented what I would call an exact implementation of what Brian Smits would have recommended: a big switch statement of all 8 possible cases."

I convinced Solomon that Smits hadn't invented this idea - he'd had similar ideas, like breaking up the ray/box intersection itself into 8 possible cases, but hadn't thought of this simple "use the split plane" idea. As Brandon Mansfield notes, this scheme has the flavor of kd-tree traversal, as you are traversing the closer bounding boxes first. Ray tracers such as POV-Ray do this type of sorting explicitly, using a priority queue to order the bounding boxes hit by their intersection distances. This is Kay and Kajiya's idea. In this way the children of the closer bounding box are tested first. What I like about Mansfield's method is that it avoids this costly queueing and sorting in favor of an extremely quick test.

What I didn't like about this test is that it seems to, at first glance, go against what I learnt from Smits' article on optimizing bounding volume hierarchy traversal: putting the boxes in depth first order (to obtain memory coherence), then flattening the list to avoid recursive function calls. See http://www.cs.utah.edu/~bes/papers/fastRT/paper-node12.html. To summarize, the BVH is traversed in depth-first order and each box is put in an array in this order. If a box is hit, then the next box in the list is tested. If a box is missed, then its skip pointer is used to find the next place in the flattened list to continue box testing. Smits' scheme is very fast compared to the traditional BVH traversal: going from case 2 (traditional "call the two children", no memory coherence) to case 5 (flattened list with skip pointers) gives about a 2x gain in speed, see http://www.cs.utah.edu/~bes/papers/fastRT/paper-node14.html.

The problem with Mansfield's scheme is that it gives a different order for traversing the children, dependent on the ray's direction. This means that you can't simply walk through the list, as in Smits' scheme, since you want to sometimes choose one child, sometimes the other. One wasteful solution is to have 8 different arrays and skip lists, i.e. flatten the list 8 times, one for each type of ray direction (that said, one good idea would be to flatten the list once but use the eye direction to choose which child to prefer intersecting first).

However, talking with Solomon, I suspect you can get most of the efficiency of Smits' scheme along with Mansfield's. You can still recreate the hierarchy in depth-first order and gain most of the memory coherence, which does make a difference. That is, you take the BVH you've created, then walk the hierarchy and create a new memory-coherent hierarchy in a single allocated chunk of memory (see RTNv12n1 for a similar idea for grid cells). You still need to have pointers to two children, not just one skip pointer. To avoid recursive function calls (which Smits says are expensive, Solomon feels they might not be that bad), simply use a stack, i.e.

    intStack.push( second );
    intersect( first );

and when there is nothing left to intersect, pop the stack and intersect the next object there. Pushing and popping a stack with a single pointer is definitely not slower than calling and exiting a function.

So what's the payoff? Mansfield claims a 3x speed-up with a million sphere test scene. I suspect this speedup is so high simply because of the huge depth complexity of a million random spheres. Real test scenes rarely have such depth complexity. For his realistic scenes he gets a 15% to 30% speedup. Whatever the case, the scheme does appear to be faster, at least within his test setup. However, he's not testing against a true flattened list with skip pointers, so the jury is still out as to whether this optimization is worthwhile or not. Also, though it might help for local light sources, such a traversal seems unlikely to help with shadow rays directed at infinite light sources - the closest object does not have to block the light, any object will do, so sorting seems like a loser (Solomon disagrees, with the intuition that closer blockers might have a higher chance of blocking when tested). Which is why you're seeing it in the Ray Tracing News: if someone wants to implement Smits' scheme and test it against Mansfield's, both for eye rays and shadow rays, please do so! Solomon mentioned he might try this, I'm hoping he'll find the time.

What's interesting to me is how this optimization makes bounding volume hierarchies a bit more like kd-trees, as there's a natural closer/farther sorting going on. Also note that, no matter how you form your bounding volume hierarchy (e.g. Goldsmith & Salmon), you can go through the hierarchy and order the children along the best sorting axis. I'm curious if people have worked as much to tune BVH building schemes as they have kd-trees. In the past two issues, RTNv17n1 and RTNv18n1, I discussed building optimal kd-trees (and covered previously by Vlastimil Havran). Which leads me to a related topic, the next article.

That said, I would be interested to know how this method compares to the simple optimization of first attempting to intersect the object that you intersected last time around for this type of ray. That is, you shoot an eye ray. It is found to hit a car windshield. For the next eye ray, you first try shooting a ray against this windshield object before doing anything else. If it hits (likely, in this case) you then have an excellent maximum ray length. Shooting this ray against the hierarchy will give less intersection tests for the ray, since bounding boxes beyond its maximum length are missed. Note that this simple optimization lessens the effect of Mansfield's method: if the closest hit really is the windshield, then front to back order traversal is entirely irrelevant, as all other hits will be discarded anyway. The times Mansfield's sort will help are when there really is something closer than the windshield at the next pixel, or when the initial windshield test failed (in which case we're back to normal ray tracing). This happens at a fair number of pixels that the object hit changes, so I can imagine Mansfield's optimization is still a worthwhile win, and certainly pixel-to-pixel coherence is not as available on multiprocessor ray tracers, but I'd be curious how much oomph Mansfield's approach gives you vs. this simple "shoot the previous closest object first" optimization.

All in all, the Mansfield/Boulos/Mahvosky scheme seems to be a winner, and to my mind it (along with Smits hierarchy flattening) are the minimum baseline system requirements for any fair testing of any new BVH traversal or formation methods that are researched.

(followup

  • here)

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    BVHs and Memory Coherence, notes by Sung-Eui Yoon and Christer Ericson

    In the previous article, Smits' traversal method receives a boost from making the BVH tree memory coherent, in a depth-first traversal order. Sung-Eui and Christer are both interested in the problem, though at different scales; Sung-Eui is looking at very large models, Christer at data for today's games. What follow are some comments from both.

    Sung-Eui Yoon and Dinesh Manocha have published a paper, "Cache-Efficient Layouts of Bounding Volume Hierarchies", http://gamma.cs.unc.edu/COLBVH/.

    Sung-Eui writes:

    The key idea of our cache-oblivious layout is to compute layouts of bounding volume (BV) nodes of hierarchy based on the geometric relationship between bounding volume information at the nodes. Please note that the runtime access pattern between BV nodes in collision detection and ray tracing is not really determined by the structure of the hierarchy, but is determined by the geometric information of nodes. For example, if a bounding volume of a left child is much bigger than that of its right sibling, we can easily say that the left node is likely to be accessed more at runtime. Fortunately, we can mathematically formalize this in a probabilistic model given a collision query (please refer to http://gamma.cs.unc.edu/COLBVH/)

    I also compared our cache-oblivious layout with other layouts including depth-first layout and the van Emde Boas layout. Simply speaking, we were able to show the performance improvement over the other tested layouts in many different contact configurations.

    Actually, I was able to observe performance improvement mainly from the reduction of disk access time. Since the typical disk block size is 4KB, there are many possible choices that we can pack bounding volume nodes in that 4KB block; so, layouts of nodes matters.

    But, I wasn't able to see much speedup when I ran collision detection after I loaded all the data into the memory. Since typical L1/L2 cache size is 64B and the bounding volume node size that I used is 32B or 64B, there is not much performance difference caused by the layout method using clustering based on our probabilistic model.

    Also, our current layout technique is highly optimized for static models since layout computation takes some time. Currently, we are actively working on extending this technique to dynamic models.

    ____

    Christer Ericson, author of "Real-Time Collision Detection", writes:

    A "standard" tree (e.g. a binary tree, where each tree node points to some other node at an unrelated position in memory) is terrible in its memory behavior because we have no cache coherency for a random query (which effectively collision queries are, in the sense of which leaf/leaves are visited).

    You can improve the memory behavior by grouping 'related' nodes together in memory in some fashion. (Where related means parent-child relationships of some form.)

    Depth-first search is the most basic of such groupings, where, for e.g. a binary tree, you have the left child immediately follow the parent in memory and then have a pointer to the right child somewhere else in memory. This means that during the traversal to a leaf you will have the next node in cache roughly 50% of the time.

    Obviously a big improvement over 0% of the time (for the naive "standard" implementation) but far from efficient.

    Instead you want to e.g. slice the tree into subtrees (just large enough to fit into a cacheline) where the subtree is output in a breath-first order (to allow pointer-less access). On top of that you want to compress the nodes themselves (so you can fit a larger subtree into a cacheline) and come up with a clever approach of linking subtrees together.

    I outlined one such scheme (for k-d trees) in section 13.4.1 of RTCD. It is pretty straightforward to come up with variations for other types of trees, containing other type of data.

    For this type of approach you get a cache miss only every n-th node traversal, where n is the height of the subtrees. This is a drastic improvement over the depth-first output that e.g. Smits recommended.

    Of course, you can only really do this stuff for static trees, because the data structure is pretty expensive to construct at tool time (but not to traverse at runtime).

    The "van Emde Boas" cache-oblivious ordering is also very similar to the type of layout I'm referring to (and I talk about the vEB-type trees in section 13.4.3).

    Christer also followed up with these notes:

    Overall, optimizing for the L1/L2 cache is one of the most important optimizations one can perform (on par with algorithmic optimization). Today, an L2 cache miss is on the order of 500 cycles, which on your typical superscalar CPU translates into 1000 lost cycles of execution. As a result of this, I feel the value of explicitly stored bounding volumes is limited. For example, an uncompressed OBB, at 64 bytes, fully occupy a cacheline on most machines. Even uncompressed AABBs, at 24 bytes each, miss out on some important optimization.

    I would not work with stored bounding volumes at all if I can compute them on the fly as I am traversing the data structure, as I can with e.g. a k-d tree. For example, the k-d tree representation I give in Section 13.4 of RTCD effectively represents 16 (touching) AABB's for each cacheline of data specified. That is the same amount of space it takes to store one uncompressed OBB! (And this isn't even the most compact way of storing the k-d tree.)

    Of course, more elaborate data structures, such as the k-d tree I mention above, require that the contained data is static due to the time it takes to build the structure. When working with dynamic data, bounding volumes are still very useful. Even so, I would strongly advice people not to be working with uncompressed bounding volumes on current architectures, as uncompressed bounding volumes are very cache-unfriendly.

    back to contents


    "So long and thanks for all the fish...", from Michael Ashikhmin, comments by Eric Haines

    Michael Ashikhmin wrote a good-bye note to the field just before SIGGRAPH: http://www.cs.utah.edu/~michael/leaving.html. Go read it and then come back. Or read the followup forum discussion http://www.quicktopic.com/37/H/fCaGSKy7A2XU and then come back. By the way, Marc Levoy (SIGGRAPH 2007 Papers Chair) held a town meeting at SIGGRAPH to air out these complaints and see what could be done.

    While I've reviewed many papers over the years, I haven't submitted all that many, and very few to SIGGRAPH (and certainly none in the past decade). I also haven't served on the SIGGRAPH Papers Committee (thank heavens; it looks like a ton of work). So I can't comment on the validity of some of his harsher criticisms. For me, the main use of his article is to hold a mirror to the community. If you read it and recognize something of truth in its criticisms in your own behavior, then please reform yourself.

    Some problems are systems-oriented. SIGGRAPH is indeed an uber-conference that is everyone's first pick of where to be published, so there's a "let's give it a shot" sense to submitting. I'd like to add one other bad behavior to watch for: submitting unfinished work to SIGGRAPH in order to get some useful feedback before submitting the final paper elsewhere. That this is done at all attests to the overall high quality and seriousness of SIGGRAPH reviewers. Please don't abuse the system.

    My view of the world of graphics is that almost all people in the field (including Michael) are helpful and care about their work being useful to the community as a whole, vs. publishing for self aggrandizement. SIGGRAPH, just like people, has a bias towards new, hot topics and (at least seemingly) weightier pieces of work. I recall one SIGGRAPH paper that used equations and references to physical principles throughout. Going through it and decoding the formalism, I realized that what was actually being done was a fairly simple algorithm, clothed in mathematical obfuscation. Equations are precise and useful, but when an algorithm (vs. a mathematical relationship) is to be explained, please present it as pseudocode.

    I agree with Michael's critique that papers rejected because "there is no scientific justification for this technique" is somewhat unreasonable for the field of graphics. We all know that ultimately an image could be rendered by tracking all the photons in the scene. Coming up with techniques that look good at a much smaller cost is what graphics is about. I sometimes advise people to use the term "perceptually convincing" for their new algorithm vs. apologizing that it is not entirely based on physical scientific principles.

    Techniques such as Phong highlighting, environment mapping, and Gouraud interpolation could all have been rejected because they were just "tricks that look good" and not science. But such techniques necessarily came first, before more elaborate models were understood, developed, and made efficient to compute. Imagine where computer graphics would be if since its beginning there were a group of tough senior reviewers that could and would reject any paper where pixels were considered to be little squares, gamma correction was not performed, and setting a surface color or light was not done in physical units but in RGBs. By those standards we'd have to eliminate all graphics accelerators (which normally violate two or all three of those rules), most modellers and model files (which set colors by RGB), and many other parts of the industry.

    What I am seeing in the interactive rendering area is that the more useful, innovative work is getting published in book collections like "GPU Gems", "ShaderX", and "Game Programming Gems", or simply put directly on the web. Ideas like cascading shadow maps and velocity buffers are becoming commonly used in the field, but there are few formal publications on these topics. I still think many SIGGRAPH papers have a practical element to them, but feel the overall ratio of practical vs. research-only is gradually dropping. SIGGRAPH is no longer the first choice for many graphics programmers who want to learn better, practical ways to solve various problems.

    Some people might want computer graphics to be a science, but of course it is not, it's engineering, drawing on math and science, both physical and perceptual. Science is useful, in that, properly simulated, it is consistent and will give the right answer. However, it's just a guide, one that can be ignored in computer graphics if need be. Computer graphics ultimately is about efficiently creating convincing or useful imagery. Researchers draw inspiration and ideas from many different sciences and areas of mathematics, but also from techniques used in the arts and other fields. Imagine we had the same "it must be physically correct" attitude about surface modelling operations. "I'm afraid metaballs are not a reasonable modeling technique, because they do not emulate how any real-world objects work" or "Your virtual clay modeling tools are interesting, but real clay maintains its volume when you push on it, the clay moves elsewhere, so this paradigm is deeply flawed."

    So, please think twice when choosing the "it's not scientific" argument for rejecting a computer graphics paper. I have in fact rejected a paper or two because the science presented was flawed or non-existent. The key differentiator for me is whether the authors do not realize their approach does not mimic reality, or if they understand the underlying principles but then for good reasons choose to violate them on purpose.

    By the way, other fields seem even tougher to me when it comes to politicized reviewing and publishing. I've just been reading "The Man Who Loved Only Numbers: The Story of Paul Erdos and the Search for Mathematical Truth", by Paul Hoffman (a deal at $2.15 from Amazon's bargain bin). It has many interesting stories, including a few rather all-too-human tales of paranoia and deceit when publishing results. Recommended reading.

    Follow-up article in RTNv20n1

    back to contents


    Ray/Box Intersection Optimization, by Eric Haines, Solomon Boulos, and Pete Shirley

    [A long article, mostly too much of a good thing, but some buried nuggets, like Pete's formula for uniformly sampling a sphere. If nothing else, I guess this stream of text shows why refereed articles are A Good Thing, vs. this sort of blogging style of exploration. I leave it whole here because I talk about things that normally don't get covered in papers, like compiler settings.]

    I've been reviewing various object/object intersection algorithms lately, as I need to update http://www.realtimerendering.com/int/ (still not done - I'll do it after this issue is out). I was reading over the relevant articles at the "journal of graphics tools" site, using their nicely-organized list: http://jgt.akpeters.com/topics/?topic_id=19. I ran across:

    "An Efficient and Robust Ray-Box Intersection Algorithm," by Amy Williams, Steve Barrus, R. Keith Morley, and Peter Shirley, JGT 10:1 (2005), pp. 49–54.

    Their code is a nice cleanup of Smits' algorithm, and it correctly deals with the problems of dividing by zero and not comparing to -0. Source code and the paper are here: http://www.cs.utah.edu/~awilliam/box/.

    Reading the code inspired me to spruce it up a bit. The basic algorithm is the old Kay/Kajiya slabs test, along with some booleans that tell the direction of the ray and so determine which box coordinate to access. The critical parts of the classes look like this:

    Ray(Vector3 o, Vector3 d) {
        origin = o;
        direction = d;
        inv_direction = Vector3(1/d.x(), 1/d.y(), 1/d.z());
        sign[0] = (inv_direction.x() < 0);
        sign[1] = (inv_direction.y() < 0);
        sign[2] = (inv_direction.z() < 0);
    }
    
    bool Box::intersect(const Ray &r, float t0, float t1) const {
        float tmin, tmax, tymin, tymax, tzmin, tzmax;
    
        tmin = (parameters[r.sign[0]].x() - r.origin.x()) * r.inv_direction.x();
        tmax = (parameters[1-r.sign[0]].x() - r.origin.x()) * r.inv_direction.x();
        tymin = (parameters[r.sign[1]].y() - r.origin.y()) * r.inv_direction.y();
        tymax = (parameters[1-r.sign[1]].y() - r.origin.y()) * r.inv_direction.y();
        if ( (tmin > tymax) || (tymin > tmax) ) // branch 1 and branch 2
            return false;
        if (tymin > tmin)
            tmin = tymin;
        if (tymax < tmax)
            tmax = tymax;
        tzmin = (parameters[r.sign[2]].z() - r.origin.z()) * r.inv_direction.z();
        tzmax = (parameters[1-r.sign[2]].z() - r.origin.z()) * r.inv_direction.z();
        if ( (tmin > tzmax) || (tzmin > tmax) ) // branch 3 and branch 4
            return false;
        if (tzmin > tmin)
            tmin = tzmin;
        if (tzmax < tmax)
            tmax = tzmax;
        // Note: I have changed the end condition here to fit standard practice
        return ( (tmin <= t1) && (tmax >= t0) ); // branch 5 (fail tmin), 6 (fail tmax), and 7 (success)
    }
    

    You pass in a ray and the beginning and end of the ray's extent (i.e. a line segment, essentially; shadow rays, for example, have a maximum distance they can travel, not extending past the light), and get back whether the ray hit the box. So, looking at that code, can you see any optimizations?

    I saw three potential minor speedups. But, given that this is inner-loop code, every little optimization helps. First, we want to test for early outs as soon as possible. So the first "if" loop can be split into two and only those variables needed computed for the first, then for the second if needed:

        tmin = (param_list[r.sign_loc[0]] - r.origin.x()) * r.inv_direction.x();
        tymax = (param_list[r.inv_sign_loc[1]] - r.origin.y()) * r.inv_direction.y();
        if ( tmin > tymax ) // branch 1
            return false;
        tmax = (param_list[r.inv_sign_loc[0]] - r.origin.x()) * r.inv_direction.x();
        tymin = (param_list[r.sign_loc[1]] - r.origin.y()) * r.inv_direction.y();
        if ( tymin > tmax ) // branch 2
            return false;
    

    By doing so, there is a fair chance that the computations for tmax and tymin won't have to be done. I became interested to know which branches were actually taken when a box was missed. The answer turns out to be less than obvious. In the original code I've labelled the branches in the comments, e.g. the test "tmin > tymax" is what is called "branch 1". Similarly, branches 3 and 4 could be split up, having tzmax computed only if branch 3 does not give an early exit.

    Another optimization is one to avoid a few retrievals and subtractions. The code:

        tmax = (parameters[1-r.sign[0]].x() - r.origin.x()) * r.inv_direction.x();
    

    does a subtraction, for example, of "1-r.sign[0]". This is information that is entirely based on the ray, so could be computed once for the ray and reused. Also, the "parameter" value then has its x() value retrieved separately. Instead of retrieving "parameter" and its value "x()", it would be more direct to store the parameters as an array of 6 floats and access them directly. So the first two lines became:

        tmin = (param_list[r.sign_loc[0]] - r.origin.x()) * r.inv_direction.x();
        tymax = (param_list[r.inv_sign_loc[1]] - r.origin.y()) * r.inv_direction.y();
    

    with "sign_loc" and "inv_sign_loc" being integer arrays precomputed for the ray. The "param_list" is simply an array of the 6 float values of the box's corners. The rest of the code was similarly changed.

    At first I simply slopped these extra arrays in the original Ray class, leaving the original "sign" values there. All of these optimizations gave a whopping 2.25% speed up - not much. I decided to see if there was some caching effect of having all the various old and new variables sloppily shoved inside Ray and Box. There was, but not what I expected: suddenly my speed-up went below a 1% increase overall, and was actually a few percent slower compared to the original Williams code when all the rays missed the boxes. After some experimentation I found the problem: caching of some sort. By making the "sign_loc" and "inv_sign_loc" variables into "unsigned char" instead of "int", my optimized code was faster, in fact about 5.5% faster overall. I'm guessing data cache access is what changed. Amazing how these little details matter.

    The other interesting tidbit was optimization. Visual C++ has two major optimizer settings for compilation (at least that mattered for this code), "Favor Fast Code" and "Favor Small Code". The take-away here: "Favor Small Code" was the way to go. The "Small Code" setting would give code about 35-60 bytes smaller (e.g. 309 bytes vs. 370 bytes for the original Williams code), and would be consistently faster (though not much, say 1%). However, you can't conclude shorter code is also code. When I optimized the code with "sign_loc" and "inv_sign_loc" as integer arrays, the new code was 13 bytes shorter than the code that had just the reordering optimization, but it was slower.

    I first was using the test harness at http://jgt.akpeters.com/papers/LofstedtAkenineMoller05/, which analyzes a wide range of ray/triangle algorithms. It generates tests by taking two random points on a unit sphere and creating a ray. For test boxes I again grab two random points on the sphere and create a box. This way of generating data has its problems. For example, it's fairly unlikely that a box will be behind a ray. Also, thin or flat boxes get generated by this method. This was fine for my original purposes, as I was just planning on testing the original Williams algorithm against my own improvements.

    Note: if you use this test framework, make sure to set the "results" array to zero when it is allocated. This is a bug, soon fixed in the code distribution I hope. While I'm on the subject of bugs, if you use Williams' code, change the assert in box.h to be "(min <= max)" instead of "<". This fixes a failure if a box's min == max in a dimension, which is unlikely in practice (most people add and subtract an epsilon from the box's dimensions). Also change the return condition for Box.intersect to what is shown in the code above. This fixes an inconsistency with how Mahovsky's test suite, below, works.

    What was interesting was the distribution of what branches were taken for a large set of ray/box pairs that did not intersect (everything that intersects always gets to branch 7, of course):

      1       2       3       4       5       6       7
    33.10%  32.45%  16.62%  17.53%   0.30%   0.00%   0.00%
    

    As can be seen, a ray rarely fails because the box is behind it (branch 5). So my two optimizations (splitting branches 1&2 and 3&4) should pay off about half the time under these conditions, whenever the box is missed by the ray.

    Thinking about different ray directions and how they cause early outs made me try some other variations. There might be some correlation between the ray's primary direction and which slabs to test first. That is, given a ray direction of say (-5,2,3), that ray travels mainly in the X direction, then some in the Z direction more than the Y direction. Call the X direction for this ray the "major axis", the way the ray mostly points. Is it better to test the X and Z slabs and maybe get an early out before trying the Y slab, or better to try the Y and Z slabs first? I tried a number of variants, testing against cubes, which seemed more likely to be seen in actual bounding volume hierarchies than random boxes (though whether that's true is another good question!). I also changed the primitive to a cube of size 0.4 on a side, centered at the origin, since it seems more likely that an arbitrary bounding box in a bounding volume hierarchy would be cubic than entirely random.

    I also decided to ignore the effect of the box being behind the ray, so the first four branches early outs in each set of tests are scaled up to equal 100%. Here are the results:

      1       2       3       4
     32%     32%     18%     18%   - cube boxes, consistent order for slabs
     34%     34%     16%     16%   - cube boxes, accessing major and second major axis first
     39%     39%     11%     11%   - cube boxes, accessing major axis last
    

    Testing against the "easy to hit" slab last seems to be somewhat better in this case in getting early outs. This has a certain logic to it: the slab facing the ray is associated with the cube face itself that is most likely to be hit. I'm not sure the cost of the slightly longer code to access the slabs in the order dictated by the ray is worth it. Anyway, it was interesting to explore, though given the unrealistic test conditions I would have preferred gathering data from a real ray tracer rendering a real scene. But that's also real work.

    So the speedup was no big deal, 5% on my Pentium, but the exercise highlighted for me the effect of data caches, how the "Favor Fast Code" setting appears to slow performance down, and how the order in which slabs are accessed appears to matter a bit.

    So now the bad news: my optimization didn't do a lot in the grand scheme of things. 5% is useful, but there's another recent paper on the topic:

    "Fast Ray-Axis Aligned Bounding Box Overlap Tests with Plücker Coordinates," by Jeffrey Mahovsky and Brian Wyvill, JGT 9:1 (2004), pp. 35–46.

    Code's at http://jgt.akpeters.com/papers/MahovskyWyvill04/, paper at http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~blob/ps/jgt04.pdf. Jeff's Plücker Coordinates test is excellent for what it's designed for, testing whether a box is intersected by a ray. The basic version does not return the intersection distance, and is considerably faster. In timing my improved code against it, using Jeff's framework:

    Plücker boolean test:               80.84
    Williams/Haines boolean test:       92.15
    

    If the intersection distance to the box is needed, the Plücker test loses its edge but is still slightly faster:

    Plücker intersection test:          92.50
    Williams/Haines intersection test:  94.18
    

    Jeff's framework generates rays in a biased fashion: three random numbers between -1 and 1 are chosen for the direction, which gives a bias towards rays travelling diagonally. Marta and Tomas' framework also biases: points on the unit sphere are equally distributed inside a circle in the XY plane, instead of there being a higher density of rays nearer the edge of this circle. Pete Shirley gave a method for distribution in RTNv17n1. His solution is for a cosine distribution on the hemisphere, which is essentially what Marta and Tomas' (incorrectly, for this purpose) does, it distributes equally on a circle and is then projected on a hemisphere (the Nusselt analog). What actually is needed is a distribution on a sphere's surface, not cosine weighted. I tried to derive this, failed, and asked the master, Pete Shirley, who writes:

    If you want stratification though, here is a derivation for computing spherical coordinates.

    [I don't really want stratification (though it's a bonus), but certainly substituting s and r with random values in the range [0,1] gives a random ray direction. - Eric]
    p(phi) = 1/(2*pi) // this is the angle around the equator
    q(theta) = k*sin(theta)

    The CDF of q is INT_0^theta k*sin(theta') dtheta'
    which is k*(1 - cos(theta)). Since the CDF should be 1 at theta = pi,
    we can conclude that k = 1/2. So

    Q(theta) = (1-cos(theta))/2

    So for random seed r, we solve for Q(theta) = r
    which is cos(theta) = 1-2r

    So the whole shebang: use stratified seeds r,s in [0,1]^2

      phi = 2*pi*s
      cosT = 1-2*r
      sinT = sqrt(1-cosT*cosT)
      x = cos(phi)*sinT
      y = sin(phi)*sinT
      z = cosT
    
    In other words, you can vary "r" and "s" randomly in the formula above to get an unbiased random ray direction. If you want to perform stratified sampling (i.e. with a guarantee that there will be a more uniform distribution over the sphere), then you can vary "r" and "s" each over smaller intervals. For example, to get 100 rays that have less clumping than a truly random set would provide, pick a random number from [0,0.1), [0.1,0.2), [0.2,0.3), etc. in two loops for "r" and "s" and generate the direction. (Further comments on this technique in RTNv20n1)

    Pete also writes, "Dave Edwards has some nice notes on MC that explains why the general mechanics above work: http://www.cs.utah.edu/classes/cs7650/, see Monte Carlo notes." Pete notes that this info is also available in his article, "Nonuniform Random Point Sets," Graphics Gems III, p. 80-83, along with the formulations for a number of other commonly-used surfaces and volumes.

    Before Pete sent this to me, I cheated and used the other (slower, but easy to remember) way to get an unbiased ray direction: generate three random numbers from [-1,1]. If the length of the vector is greater than 1 (or is 0, extremely rare), generate three more random numbers and test again. Else normalize this vector and use it as the direction. The idea here is simple: you're generating random points in space. If they're inside or on the unit sphere, then the direction generated is an unbiased sample of the unit sphere. This trick works for only the sphere, though.

    I tried this unbiased direction for Mahovsky's test suite (which, by the way, is very easy to use and extend) and it didn't have any appreciable effect, I'm happy to say. Timings were pretty much the same, and I would chalk up any difference to noise.

    The real conclusion of much of this sort of exploration, to me, is that it's best to use a working ray tracer and some set of real scenes. I have never seen a summary of the average distribution of bounding box dimensions for boxes actually tested, or data about the relative frequency of early-out branching. With this sort of information in hand we could design a random ray and random box generator that would better simulate real-world conditions. Anyone out there have an undergrad looking for a quick project?

    But wait, there's more. So, armed with the knowledge that Williams' algorithm was one of the best published algorithms out there, I decided to port it to POV-Ray. It's not the absolute fastest, but it's way easier to understand than Mahovsky's Plücker test, so it seemed a good candidate. There was already a slabs-style box intersector in POV-Ray. It's from 1993, ancient code, so all this recent research has to have paid off, right?

    Looking it up, back on August 17, 1993 I did a bunch of optimizations to the original bounding box test they were using, fixing a bug and making it 25% faster (speeding up overall performance by about 10%). Xander Enzmann put the code into the mainstream. It's old-school code, no clever use of IEEE floating point math. My basic ideas:

    I'm not sure the last bit is really worthwhile; again, an analysis of the frequency at which "early out" conditions are reached would help here. Given that in practice in POV-Ray (and other ray tracers I've seen) bounding boxes are actually intersected only about 20% of the time (or less), it seems early outs are worth stressing.

    One headache with adding Williams' code was that POV-Ray uses a peculiar definition for a bounding box, defining a lower-left corner and a length of each side of the box. Converting to lower-left/upper-right corners meant changing about 20 files. I didn't use the SPD tests for testing, as they would render a bit too fast! I could of course shoot more rays, but I admit I didn't want to bug around with it - if I saw an encouraging difference in speed, then I'd be more formal. Instead I went with the Balcony and Benchmark POV scenes, as these perform a large number of ray/box tests. It was a wash: the differences in overall times were at most 2% either way, with perhaps a slight advantage going to POV-Ray.

    I went back to Mahovsky's intersection test harness and timed the Williams code with my optimizations against my old POV-Ray box intersector. The timings were:

            Williams, with my optimizations: 117.6s   POV-Ray: 118.8s
    

    About a 1% difference. OK, I think we've reached a plateau of optimization here, at least when you need the intersection point back, like POV-Ray does. Which may in fact be a mistake on POV-Ray's part; it uses a priority queue to order the intersections and attempt to find a close intersection quickly. Not using a priority queue and so being able to use the faster Plücker boolean test might serve POV-Ray better, especially given that 80% of all bounding boxes are missed. It would be interesting to know how much time is saved by finding a closest intersection early on and so discarding the boxes that were hit beyond this distance. Certainly this optimization is useless for shadow rays.

    Anyway, there's not much time difference between the two tests, new and old. That said, I prefer Williams' code, as it's much more elegant and compact. It would make a better pixel shader routine, for example, assuming pixel shader hardware properly follows IEEE specs. Still, I found it interesting that the lowly, ancient POV-Ray code from long ago turns out to be pretty optimal, even with its goofy bounding box structure. Shame on me, I should have explained this optimized code here long ago! But I think I felt that level of detail would have been boring, just like this article's pretty darn boring (did you actually make it this far?).

    The last tidbit was that I then tried "Favor Fast Code" vs. "Favor Small Code" for the whole POV-Ray project. This time, "Fast Code" was the way to go, the system appeared to be faster overall with this setting. So much for my earlier conclusions about "Small Code". Perhaps "Small Code" optimization for the bounding box code, "Fast Code" for everything else...? No, in that way lieth madness.

    So the real take-away for me was: test under real conditions, with real scenes that you care about. Early outs are nice to optimize when possible, as are precomputes. Yeesh, not much to show for all of this. Well, now I've saved others the trouble, I hope. If nothing else, we have the correct formula for distributing rays in an unbiased spherical pattern.

    But it didn't stop there. Solomon Boulos and I started to correspond on the issue. Solomon likes this test:

           float tmin = 1e-5f;
           float tmax = rays.getMinT(ray);
    

           for (int c = 0; c < 3; c++) {
               float t0 = (box[0][c] - rays.getOrigin(ray,c)) * rays.getInverseDirection(ray,c);
               float t1 = (box[1][c] - rays.getOrigin(ray,c)) * rays.getInverseDirection(ray,c);
    

               float near = (t0 < t1) ? t0 : t1;
               float far  = (t0 < t1) ? t1 : t0;
               tmin = (tmin < near) ? near : tmin; // max of tmin, near
               tmax = (far <  tmax) ? far : tmax;  // min of tmax, far
           }
           if (tmin <= tmax) // valid intersection
               return ray;
    

    Excerpting what he writes:

    I believe that this code is faster. It lends itself to allowing the compiler to easily convert it to single scalar SSE code (giving a huge boost). Basically, recent x86 systems (and to some extent PPC systems, but especially the Cell) need you to write code without branching.

    In any case, it's way faster than all the possible early exits at least for my machine with my compiler (i686-apple-darwin8-g++-4.0.1 (GCC) 4.0.1 (Apple Computer, Inc. build 5363) on a 2.0 GHz Macbook -- yeah, the cheap white one). Now since I happened to do an internship at Microsoft a couple of years ago, I'm more than willing to say that I will ignore any performance results that use its compiler (so sorry about the hard work you put in, but the VC compiler is truly awful -- I've got some radix sort code that is 5x faster on the same machine when compiled under g++ even using all sorts of flags for VC). I don't know if you happen to run Cygwin, but the radix sort test I mentioned was g++ under Cygwin. You should give it a try.

    Also note that I'm not using the Williams clever sign test in my code anymore (I used to think it was important, but in the world of interactive ray tracing it's actually slower because it confuses the compiler and produces branches).

    ____

    I tried his code under Visual C's compiler, with some options he recommended: "It looks like you can pass /arch:SSE2 to your list of optimization flags. You may also have to turn on intrinsics by doing /Oi. Looks like you might want /fp:fast too:

    http://msdn.microsoft.com/vstudio/tour/vs2005_guided_tour/VS2005pro/Framework/CPlus32BitOptimization.htm

    Doing so did convert Solomon's test to use SSE2 instructions (I checked the assembly code, it was using SSE - pretty cool to see the optimizer actually unwind the loop, as I hoped it would), but it also converted the other tests to use these, too. The results:

    % hit   pluecker   plueckerint   hainesint   hainesint_oct   boulos
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
      0      13.58s       13.76s       14.21s       13.91s       15.30s
     10      13.39s       13.82s       14.42s       13.67s       15.18s
     20      13.96s       13.90s       14.43s       13.76s       15.31s
     30      13.89s       13.88s       14.19s       13.97s       15.61s
     40      13.64s       13.88s       14.42s       14.25s       15.38s
     50      13.93s       14.02s       14.71s       14.67s       15.11s
     60      14.12s       14.29s       15.98s       14.36s       15.40s
     70      14.32s       14.79s       14.98s       14.23s       15.07s
     80      14.40s       14.34s       14.91s       15.28s       15.86s
     90      14.46s       14.90s       15.16s       14.99s       15.10s
    100      14.38s       15.00s       15.20s       14.58s       14.95s
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    Sum:    154.07s      156.59s      162.62s      157.68s      168.29s
    

    The "% hit" is how many rays hit the box; early-out tests should help more when the hit percentage is low. "Pluecker" is the test that returns no intersection distance, "plueckerint" does. "Hainesint" is my modified Williams test, returning an intersection. Solomon suggested that some speedup could be had by using a switch statement instead of using indexing to extract the proper direction values, and "hainesint_oct" is indeed a bit faster for doing so, comparable with "plueckerint" (which does this same technique). "boulos" is Solomon's test, which appears to run slower than the others, at least on Visual C's compiler. Definitely a "your mileage may vary" kind of thing - without the compiler flags Solomon recommended, all the code runs maybe 3% faster overall. I'm not sure how it runs under g++, though - Solomon may be right about that.

    The thing to notice is that the early-outs do have an effect, lowering the intersection times when the ray misses the box (and in reality the ray hits the box maybe 20% of the time at most, it seems). Boulos' test, with no early-outs, takes longer.

    I guess my final conclusion is, "stop wasting time on finding a better ray/box test, the ones we have are pretty near-optimal". Figuring out the optimal compiler and compiler settings is certainly worthwhile if you're planning on shooting a lot of rays (like Utah does), but the basic algorithms we currently have appear to be pretty much the cat's meow (or the cat's pajamas, if you prefer).

    (Further ray/box optimization can be found in RTNv21n1 and RTNv23n1.)

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    SIGGRAPH 2006 Report, by Eric Haines

    Before I start, one little tip in order to be a cool graphics person (oxymoron that that is). "SIGGRAPH" is pronounced "sig-raff" (short "i", rhymes with "big"), not "see-graff" or "seeg-raff".

    Some highlight pictures (by someone else) are at http://www.pcmag.com/slideshow/0,1206,pg=0&s=1489&a=185055,00.asp

    First the fun stuff. I've been convinced for a number of years that if you throw enough money and people at a graphics rendering problem, you can do just about anything. If my mind were maybe made of adamantine or silicon or something, I would care for two solid hours only about the technical excellence of pieces in the Electronic Theater program. It's not, so now the ET is mostly about entertainment for me. With that in mind, my two favorite pieces happened to be beer commercials. It's the soundtrack that makes The Big Ad funny from the get-go: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tZslkC4y2qY, the graphics is secondary (and is done mostly to save money, not do something undoable with traditional means). Guiness' "noitulovE" is less hilarious, but more technically impressive: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9L4MOHpOLWo. Otherwise it's mostly a blur; I felt like there were fewer long, dark, man's-inhumanity-to-man pieces this year, and talking with Paul Debevec, he's committed to avoiding these for next year. That's a trend I'd like to see continue.

    Oh, there were also the usual red/green paddle games by Cinematrix, http://www.cinematrix.com/, before the show. What was interesting was to realize how limited groupthink can be. If the goal is obvious, like moving the Pong paddle, there's a little overshoot and whatnot, but overall the crowd does well. For other tasks there were two groups, one controlling the vertical, the other the horizontal. A game where the player goes through a maze, in a top-down view, was fun in that most people seemed to immediately shoot off and try to move as quickly as possible to somewhere (who cares where?), at least in our session. Eventually (accompanied by yelling from various "pixels") people stopped moving, figured out the path to the end location, and got it together and moved there. The Etch-a-Sketch game was one where things mostly fell apart. A circle is shown, the nib starts on the outline - draw it. Do you, as a controller, go left or right? Generally anything where either choice was a fine strategy for an individual led to gridlock and confusion, since you didn't know what the "up-and-down" guys were really going to do (or you didn't think much about them; maybe with enough practice and trust you'd be able to build up ways to interact successfully). Fun to think about; I wonder if they had made an arrow pointing clockwise around the figure whether we would have done any better; we were also pretty bad at drawing anyway, given how the drawing nib was controlled by velocity.

    In Emerging Technologies:

    * The plasma display was probably the most talked-about emerging technology. No, not a 2D plasma display, an Evil Genius focus a beam of laser light on a point in space, heat it up to 50k degrees and turn it into plasma display. Hellacious racket, and you could get only about 50 pixels for drawing things, but pretty amazing. See http://www.gamasutra.com/siggraph2006/news.php?story=10306, and another image at http://www.pcmag.com/slideshow_viewer/0,1205,l=&s=1489&a=185055&po=9,00.asp.

    * The spinning house, with Morphovision. Think of how a strobe light can freeze action, making a spinning object appear to be still. Now, instead of a strobe, sweep a vertical beam of light over the house, in sync with its rotation. Each vertical slice of the house is now frozen, but at a different time, so the house looks warped. Now play with the vertical beam of light, making it wavy, or broken into pieces, or whatever. You get all sorts of great effects. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0FpgYhlizM. It looks much better than this in real-life, without video problems and compression artifacts, but it gives you the idea.

    * Jeff Han's multitouch wall was great to see in action, after reading about it last year: http://mrl.nyu.edu/~jhan/ftirtouch/. Quite natural to just use, with only the occasional misregister. His Media Mirror was also fun to try: http://mrl.nyu.edu/~jhan/mediamirror/index.html

    * The Holovizio 3D display was impressive. Not just a two-image autostereoscopic display, it's more a holographic display; they claim each image is equivalent to about 100 2D images. It worked without glasses with a pretty wide view angle. Everything in the world is on YouTube now, and it's worth a look: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPWFzq7C-v4

    Not at SIGGRAPH, as far as I know, but it should have been: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yd99gyE4jCk - LED fabrics from Philips.

    I didn't spend a lot of time on the exhibit hall floor, other than looking at books. The technology that made the most splash was Mova's "Contour Reality System", see http://www.mova.com/. Instead of gluing dots and whatnot onto people, cloth, or other objects for motion capture, just put on Halloween makeup with phosphorescence. A light flashes rapidly; when it's on, the normal face is captured by a camera. When it's off, other cameras capture the glowing phosphorescent dots. Now use software to correlate all of these separate dot locations among the cameras. As the face moves, the dot locations are tracked.

    I have to admit to not searching out all the ray tracing options available on the exhibit floor. For production rendering, RenderMan and MentalRay are the big two, with a number of small fry nipping at their heels. That said, there were ray tracers to be seen, the draw being that they were interactive. One new entry is RealTrace, from Michael McCool's company RapidMind (once known as Serious Hack). RealTrace was running on a number of platforms, including IBM's Cell: http://rapidmind.net/technology.php. Instead of aiming at large model visualization, the stress was on using ray tracing to improve shading quality.

    NVIDIA has a pretty impressive scene graph they're offering for free, NVSG: http://developer.nvidia.com/object/nvsg_home.html. My own experience with past scene graphs is that they almost do what I want them to, but there's always some gotcha on down the road. So I'm personally not interested, until the source code is provided. But, if you need a scene graph for some quick experimentation, this one might be worth trying out.

    NVIDIA also now provides their high-end GPU-accelerated renderer Gelato for free: http://www.nvidia.com/page/gz_home.html. You can also buy a professional version, which gives you support, the Sorbetto fast relighter, and some other bits needed for production rendering.

    It was interesting to see a Google booth this year, for the first time, mostly for the purpose of recruiting professionals. They were showing Google Earth and SketchUp, a fun architectural modeler from a company that Google purchased, and that's now free. Get it at http://www.sketchup.com/, and it's worth trying out. What's clever is that anyone can make a model of a building in the world and upload it to Google, through their 3D Warehouse system: http://sketchup.google.com/product_3dwh.html. This integrates with Google Earth, http://earth.google.com/3d.html, which will show links to buildings that exist and let you download the models. At 100 million downloads by June 12, 2006 (vs. essentially 0 downloads in June 12, 2005, when the product launched), Google Earth is perhaps now the most widely used 3D application in existence. http://www.google.com/press/pressrel/geoday.html. Admittedly, of those 100 million downloads, my guess is that the user base is far smaller, and most are just casual users. For example, my younger son loves to zoom in on cities and see what models are now there. Still, impressive stuff.

    As far as books go, there were not a huge number that interested me (hey, I'm still working through the ones I've got; just Shirley's "Fundamentals of Computer Graphics" will keep me a good long while). The most noteworthy, for me, was the book "Real-time Volume Graphics", by Engel et al, http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1568812663/. Based on their SIGGRAPH course, it appears to cover the field quite well; it's good to finally have a book about this area of graphics.

    The second edition of "Advanced Global Illumination" by Dutre et al. is now available: http://www.amazon.com/Advanced-Global-Illumination-Philip-Dutre/dp/1568813074 . The major additions are sections on light cuts, precomputed radiance transfer (PRT), and exercises at the end of each chapter.

    I was also interested to see "The Game Programmer's Guide to Torque", http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1568812841/, as it's nice to see the extremely inexpensive Torque game engine, http://www.garagegames.com/ ($100 for indie developers), get more exposure.

    A book on the "Collada" 3D file specification is now available: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1568812876/. Collada is an open 3D file format developed by some researchers at Sony, led by Remi Arnaud. I spent a fair bit of time talking with Remi at the A.K. Peters' reception. He says Collada is not officially supported by Sony, since his effort was simply a part of their research group. That said, he approximates that about 15% of the games development community use Collada. Feeling Software provides FeelingViewer, a Collada viewer free for non-commercial use. The book itself goes over the specification in detail, having much more information than I could find online. It's interesting to look at what's of interest to the format, as it mirrors the concerns and workflow of game developers.

    On to courses, sketches, and papers. This isn't comprehensive coverage, rather I'm using the filter of "what do I remember a month later?" As usual, Tim Rowley has tracked where the SIGGRAPH papers and demo videos can be found, see http://www.cs.brown.edu/~tor/sig2006.html.

    I attended a fair bit of the Computational Photography course. This field is going to have a large effect on many areas in the future, with the most obvious to most of us being consumer products. It was fascinating to see how multiple images of various sorts with various filters could be captured and used to improve communication of what is in a scene. Some simple examples were high-dynamic range cameras combined with tone mapping software to give nicely balanced images. But that's the tip of the iceberg, there's all sorts of interesting experiments going on in this area. Shree Nayar (coauthor on 6 SIGGRAPH papers this year!) had, among other things, a catadioptric camera. This is a normal camera with a cylindrical reflector along the view direction. It give multiple images from different angles of a person's face or object, so allowing a 3D reconstruction of the geometry of the surface. Simple, and I like the idea that a single camera image gets used to capture multiple views. There were tons of other examples, like digital refocusing, deblurring scenes using structured light, extraction of information from diffuse reflections, and many more.

    There were many papers presented in the field. I liked Weiss' "Fast Median and Bilateral Filtering" paper, which I appreciated both for its results and its clarity in explaining the filter and its optimization. The filter can keep sharp edges sharp while smoothing other data, and Weiss gives an implementation that is much faster than Photoshop's. Another nice technique presented separately in a paper by Luft et al., "Image Enhancement by Unsharp Masking the Depth Buffer", see results at http://www.cgmi.inf.uni-konstanz.de/publications/2006/image_enhancement/results.html. Given an image with depth information, a few simple filtering and blending operations gives a stronger differentiation between objects.

    Image and video stream manipulation is a growing trend at SIGGRAPH. There's now enough computational power around that quite complex algorithms can be applied without (much) fear of glacial computation times. For example, "Real-time Video Abstraction", http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~holger/Research/VideoAbstraction/. Rotoscoping, where you take live action and draw an abstract version, is a painstaking process. It was most recently used in "A Scanner Darkly", where with partial automation it still took 500 hours of work per minute of processed film (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Scanner_Darkly_(film)#Rotoscoping). This paper addresses the temporal coherence problem. It's not the last word in the subject, since each video stream will have its own challenges, but it's the type of research that will make this effect be more affordable, and so become more commonplace and eventually, overused and trite. That's OK, I like the effect, and really, better solutions to this problem will help many forms of video stream processing and so lead to a wider range of possibilities.

    In ray tracing there were bits of progress here and there. Ingo Wald mentioned that, due to a seminar at the University of Utah, some clever ideas came from students. These were somewhat impractical at first, but got researchers there thinking in new ways. A few papers came out of this collaboration, including the SIGGRAPH paper, "Ray Tracing Animated Scenes using Coherent Grid Traversal". This is a clever paper, with a different way of thinking of how to traverse a beam through a grid (3DDDA doesn't work), among other things.

    Ray tracing continues to be researched, due to the ability to use it for interactive rendering, and fast updates to the efficiency structure is an active area, as are new ways of intersecting groups of rays. Trends: Intel's announced a multicore processor with 4 cores. Put two of these on a motherboard and you've got an 8 core system on your desktop. Gordon Stoll (ray tracing researcher at Intel) says that these are quite parallelizable for ray tracing, they're not overwhelmed with memory contention or other communications problems. The two directions researchers are going with ray tracing systems are those for improved shading, and those for improved large scene rendering. Shading means reflection, refraction, photon map, and all sorts of other rays. Some of these sets of rays are pretty coherent (shadows, glossy reflection bundles, etc.), but many have little coherence. Lack of coherence also kills caching schemes. Also, a trend in interactive ray tracing is to track beams of rays, opening the beams as needed, and this lack of coherence hurts such approaches. How to ameliorate the problems of shooting these secondary rays is the challenge.

    Large model visualization is the other direction for research. There's lots more coherence when you limit rendering to eye and shadow rays, and rays do have the intrinsic advantage of O(log N) time to find what a particular ray hits. Z-buffers in theory are O(N). This is the basis of Kajiya's old argument, that ray tracing must be faster than z-buffering in the far future because of the difference in order; at some point the number of primitives overwhelms the z-buffer. It turns out this argument is less relevant in practice, as z-buffer algorithms for large models include using bounding volumes for frustum culling, occlusion culling, and rough front to back rendering to avoid reshading. I find it interesting that the trends are that single rays are getting grouped as beams for coherence, and that for z-buffering schemes such kd-trees and bounding volume hierarchies are used for increasing efficiency. Occlusion cull testing of boxes can be thought of as a way of checking a beam of rays (those that would hit the box) vs. some previously rendered objects to see if all rays have hit closer objects, similar to ray tracing. That said, ray tracing does have advantages in areas such as transparency, where Z-buffers have no ability to retain more than one surface at each pixel. Stephens et al. had a demo for last SIGGRAPH showing the 350 million polygon Boeing 777 model at interactive rates (see http://www.cs.utah.edu/~boulos/research.htm).

    In the field of GPU rendering, as usual there were some incredible demos. Most impressive to me was Natalya Tatarchuk's talk "Artist-Directable Real-Time Rain Rendering in City Environments", http://www.ati.com/developer/siggraph06/Tatarchuk-Rain.pdf. This talk is maybe 7 sketches worth of ideas and techniques, ways of solving various problems by using shaders and techniques of all different sorts. It went on and on, getting more and more involved, like physics models for raindrops streaking on glass, with larger droplets creating caustics in their shadows. Sure, these sorts of elaborate effects are common for movies, but to see it in an interactive context just drives home how far GPU capabilities have come.

    I attended David Blythe's talk about the new features coming up in DirectX 10. Short version: sounds good! More speed, more capabilities, more flexibility. The most interesting qualitative change is how geometry can be manipulated (created or destroyed) and written to a buffer for reuse in subsequent passes. But DirectX 10 will only run under Vista, so it'll be awhile before it's generally adopted.

    One clever sketch was "Single-Pass Wireframe Rendering". The short version: it's hard to render wireframe edges on top of models without artifacts. There is a three-pass algorithm I know that works perfectly, but ugh it's three passes. Their technique is to use a pixel shader to decide: if the pixel drawn is near an edge, draw the edge color, else shade normally. I can't find anything by the original researchers, but a nice summary is at http://www.stoneschool.com/Work/Siggraph/2006/index2.html. I liked this idea because it rethought the problem, making it a pixel shader algorithm instead of a line drawing and offset algorithm.

    And here's dessert: http://guir.cs.berkeley.edu/people/yangli/research/monet/ - pretty cute idea for prototyping UI: draw simple icons and widgets, glue them up, and you have a demoable application. Fun to go to the page and watch the animations.

    Lots more happened, but this is what I felt was of general interest and worth passing on for now.

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    Eric Haines / [email protected]