*"Light Makes Right"*

May 12, 1989

Volume 2, Number 3

Compiled by

All contents are copyright (c) 1989, all rights reserved by the individual authors

Archive locations: anonymous FTP at
ftp://ftp-graphics.stanford.edu/pub/Graphics/RTNews/,

wuarchive.wustl.edu:/graphics/graphics/RTNews, and many others.

You may also want to check out the Ray Tracing News issue guide and the ray tracing FAQ.

- Introduction
- New People, by Carl Bass, Paul Wanuga
- QRT Ray Tracer (and five other Amiga Ray Tracers), by Steve Koren
- New Version of MTV Ray Tracer, by Mark VandeWettering
- Re: Ray Traced Bounding Spheres, by Earl Culham
- Noise and Turbulence Function Code, Pascal and C, by Jon Buller, William Dirks

Next time I'll include "Tracing Tricks", an article I "edited" for the latest (and last) "Introduction to Ray Tracing" course notes. The article is a "best of the RT News" compendium of efficiency tricks. By the way, the course notes should be quite a bargain: they'll consist of the book of our notes by Academic Press, plus some new tidbits and reprints of "classic" articles.

I would like to put the "Ray Tracing News" back issues somewhere that people can FTP them. Personally I don't have a computer that has an FTP site, so if there are any volunteers that would like to store the back issues, please contact me. The entire archive is about 448K at this point (not including this issue), broken into 5 parts. Can you volunteer?

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# Ithaca Software

# 902 West Seneca Street

# Ithaca, NY 14850

# 607-273-3690

alias carl_bass [email protected]

Carl is the co-founder of Ithaca Software Inc (once upon a time called "Flying Moose Inc"), which sells the HOOPS package for all kinds of computers. This is an object-oriented system which I don't know much about beyond that their debugger is called WHOOPS.

________

#

# Paul Wanuga

# Cornell Program of Computer Graphics

# 120 Rand Hall

# Ithaca, NY 14853

# (607)-255-4880

alias paul_wanuga [email protected]

Erich:

Could you please include me in your list of wiz-bango ray tracers? It appears Don has me slated for research in ray-tracing complex, realistic, non-procedural environments.

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```
hpfela![email protected]
```

The software is written in C and worked just fine on my system. Below is an excerpt of the UserMan.doc file of the QRT system (which Steve extensively documented).

QRT is a ray tracing image rendering system that runs under a variety of operating systems. It has a free format input language with extensive error detection and reporting capabilities.

QRT was developed on the Amiga personal computer, so it will be compared to other Amiga ray tracers. There are, to my knowledge, five other Amiga ray tracers, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. I will describe each system briefly, and compare it to QRT. All the Amiga ray tracers can operate in HAM (4096 color) mode.

RT: RT was the first ray tracer written for the Amiga, by Eric Graham. It will model a universe made of only spheres, a sky, and a checkered or solid ground. It is relatively fast, but not generally useful for realistic modeling because of the sphere limitation. The input language is cryptic, although some error checking is done. The system will only generate low resolution images.

SILVER: I have never seen SILVER, so I cannot say much about this system.

SCULPT-4D: This package incorporates an interactive editor for creating objects, and is capable of quickly generating a preliminary image of the scene by using hidden surface techniques. However, every primitive is made of polygons, and some primitives such as spheres require hundreds of polygons for a smooth texture, so the ray tracing is very slow. Also, the package takes a large amount of memory to run, and is prone to system crashes. Its chief feature is the ability to create arbitrary shaped objects using a series of triangles. Mirrored, dull, or shiny objects are supported.

CLIGHT: This ray tracer also has an interactive editor, but produces very poor quality images. It is not capable of any patterning or reflection characteristics.

DBW: This is possibly the most complete ray tracer for the Amiga. It will support objects with arbitrary degrees of reflection and gloss, depth of field effects, some texturing, wavy surfaces, fractals, transparent surfaces, diffuse propagation of light from object to object, and 5 primitive types (sphere, triangle, parallelogram, fractal, and ring). The input language, however, is so cryptic as to be nearly incomprehensible, and if there is any error in the input file, it will crash the system. It is also painfully slow; some images take 16 to 24 hours to complete.

QRT is meant to be a compromise between the fast, simple ray tracers and the slow powerful systems. It compares favorably in speed to RT, and in power to Sculpt-3d or DBW. It has a very friendly input language with extensive error checking. Here are some features of QRT:

o Multiple primitive types, including user defined quadratic surfaces

o Arbitrary levels of diffuse reflection, spectral reflection, transmission, ambient lighting, and gloss

o User defined pattern information for objects

o Bounding boxes for groups of objects

o Shadows

o Multiple light sources with different characteristics

o Arbitrary Phong spectral reflection coefficients

o Color dithering to increase the apparent number of colors

o Easy to use, free format input language with error checking. Parameters are by keyword and may appear in any order.

o Supports medium resolution (128k dots/screen)

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The package is available at the usual comp.sources.unix archive sites or from Mark via anonymous ftp at drizzle.cs.uoregon.edu. Mark's address is:

```
[email protected]
```

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In article ([email protected]), [email protected] (Jack Ritter) writes:

>Given a cluster of points in 3 space, is there

>a good method for finding the minimum radius

>sphere which encloses all the points? If not

>minimum, at least "small"? Certainly it should

>be tighter than the sphere which encloses the

>minimum bounding box.

>

>I have a feeling the solution is iterative. If

>so, I could provide a good initial guess for the

>center & radius.

The solution is not iterative. A simple solution is available in a two step process, and is characterized by whether three, or only two of the points are on the surface of the optimal sphere.

Given the points, A, B, and C.

Searching for the center of the optimal sphere, P, with the smallest
radius, R.

Checking the midpoints.

set P = point halfway between A and B

set R = 1/2 of length from A to B

If length from C to P is less than or equal to R ---> done

Repeat with line A-C, and B-C if needed.

Extending the midpoints at right angles.

build the line which intersects A-B at a right angle through the midpoint of A-B, call the line D. build the line which intersects A-C at a right angle through the midpoint of A-C, call it E. P is the point where D and E intersect. (Solve the simultaneous equations; R is the length A-P)

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In article ([email protected]) [email protected] (Tony Apodaca) writes:

>In article ([email protected]) [email protected] (Stephen B Coy) writes:

>> ...My question: Does anyone out there know what this

>>noise function really is?

>

> Three-dimensional simulated natural textures using pseudorandom

>functions were simultaneously and independently developed by Darwyn

>Peachey and Ken Perlin in 1984-5. Both have papers in the 1985

>Siggraph Proceedings describing their systems. Perlin, in particular,

>describes in detail how noise() is implemented and can be used creatively

[A description of the properties of the noise function goes here...]

> If you have ever been interested in realistic computer graphics, do

>whatever it takes to get a look at Perlin's paper. In 1985, his pictures

>were absolutely astounding. In 1989, they are STILL astounding.

No kidding, some of those pictures are INCREDIBLE.

Here is my code for a look-alike to the Pixar Noise function, and while I can't say anything about exactly what Pixar's looks like, I think this is probably close. After reading the 1985 SIGGRAPH papers on 3d texturing, (and seeing my prof's code to do a similar thing) I wrote this. It uses a quadratic B-Spline instead of the cubic Hermite interpolant implied in the paper. Also note that DNoise is just the x, y, and z derivatives of Noise (which are also B-Splines). The hashing functions are from Knuth's Art of Computer Programming (I don't remember which volume though).

I know the code is Pascal, and all of you will hate it, but I believe I write better Pascal than C... One final note, this was Lightspeed Pascal 2.0 for the Macintosh, but things have been reformatted slightly to get it on the net. I hope this is what you all wanted.

________

More:

One other thing you might notice, Noise is C1 continuous, DNoise is only C0. This means that DNoise will have creases in it (along the planes of the random grid. To see this, crank out a square: 0 < X < 5, 0 < Y < 5, Z=0. You will see smooth regions within each unit square, and creases between squares. To avoid this, use a cubic B-Spline, or cubic Hermite (as hinted to in the SIGGRAPH proceedings) the problem there, is that you either need more data points (64 instead of 27) for the B-Spline, or derivative info at each point of the grid (a normal plane, 4 floats instead of 1). This would take too muh time for me to code up to be worth it, and would probably run too much slower (10min for a 200x200 pixel picture now, ug.) If somebody wants to give me a cray-3 to play with, I'll write more accurate (and slower) code, until then... 8-)

Jon
[email protected] ...!ncar!ccncsu!handel!bullerj

(These are my ideas (and code), nobody else SHOULD want these bugs)

I'm just trying to graduate. Apple, Pixar, HP, etc. take note, I would like
your job offers, I have tired of the university life.

[NOTE: I have attached the Pascal code for the Turbulence functions. The Noise functions are in the next message in "C". Sorry about the mixed languages, but I haven't nicely translated these. -- EAH]

(* ---------- cut here ---------- cut here ---------- cut here ---------- *) const MaxPts = 512; { Must be 2^n} MPM1 = MaxPts - 1; type PtsTyp = array[0..MaxPts] of Extended; var Points: PtsTyp; function Turb (Size: Integer; ScaleFactor: Extended; Loc: Vect; Pts: PtsTyp): Extended; var Scale, Result: Extended; Cur: Integer; begin Result := Noise(Loc, Pts); Scale := 1.0; Cur := 1; while Cur < Size do begin Cur := BSL(Cur, 1); {Cur := Cur * 2} Scale := Scale * ScaleFactor; Loc := Scale_Vect(2.0, Loc); Result := Result + Noise(Loc, Pts) * Scale; end; Turb := Result; end; function DTurb (Size: Integer; ScaleFactor: Extended; Loc: Vect; Pts: PtsTyp): Vect; var Result: Vect; Scale: Extended; Cur: Integer; begin Result := DNoise(Loc, Pts); Scale := 1.0; Cur := 1; while Cur < Size do begin Cur := BSL(Cur, 1); Scale := Scale * ScaleFactor; Loc := Scale_Vect(2.0, Loc); Result := Add_Vect(Result, Scale_Vect(Scale, DNoise(Loc, Pts))); end; DTurb := Result; end;

______________________________________

C Versions of Noise and DNoise Routines, by William Dirks ([email protected])

Organization: Ohio State University Computer and Information Science

It was suggested to me that some of you would be interested in my translated-into-C-and-corrected versions of noise() and Dnoise().

So, here they are.

Note that this is only noise and Dnoise. The turbulence routines are not included 'cause I haven't translated them yet.

Oh yeah, initnoise() fills the pts[] array with random numbers between 0 and 1. Don't forget to initialize, or noise will always return 0. (That's been experimentally verified! :-))

--Bill--

[Note that you should look over the rand() function if you use this stuff. Some rand()'s need initialization (srand()), and some give numbers from 0 to 32767, and so should use this as a divisor. -- EAH]

---------cut-here------------------------------------cut-here-------- /* ** Noise and Dnoise routines * * Many thanks to Jon Buller of Colorado State University for these * routines. */ typedef struct vector { double x, y, z; } Vector; #define NUMPTS 512

#define P1 173

#define P2 263

#define P3 337

#define phi 0.6180339

static double pts[NUMPTS]; void initnoise() { int i; for (i = 0; i < NUMPTS; ++i) pts[i] = rand() / 2.147483e9; } double noise(p) Vector *p; { int xi, yi, zi; int xa, xb, xc, ya, yb, yc, za, zb, zc; double xf, yf, zf; double x2, x1, x0, y2, y1, y0, z2, z1, z0; double p000, p100, p200, p010, p110, p210, p020, p120, p220; double p001, p101, p201, p011, p111, p211, p021, p121, p221; double p002, p102, p202, p012, p112, p212, p022, p122, p222; xi = floor(p->x); xa = floor(P1 * (xi * phi - floor(xi * phi))); xb = floor(P1 * ((xi + 1) * phi - floor((xi + 1) * phi))); xc = floor(P1 * ((xi + 2) * phi - floor((xi + 2) * phi))); yi = floor(p->y); ya = floor(P2 * (yi * phi - floor(yi * phi))); yb = floor(P2 * ((yi + 1) * phi - floor((yi + 1) * phi))); yc = floor(P2 * ((yi + 2) * phi - floor((yi + 2) * phi))); zi = floor(p->z); za = floor(P3 * (zi * phi - floor(zi * phi))); zb = floor(P3 * ((zi + 1) * phi - floor((zi + 1) * phi))); zc = floor(P3 * ((zi + 2) * phi - floor((zi + 2) * phi))); p000 = pts[xa + ya + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p100 = pts[xb + ya + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p200 = pts[xc + ya + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p010 = pts[xa + yb + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p110 = pts[xb + yb + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p210 = pts[xc + yb + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p020 = pts[xa + yc + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p120 = pts[xb + yc + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p220 = pts[xc + yc + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p001 = pts[xa + ya + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p101 = pts[xb + ya + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p201 = pts[xc + ya + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p011 = pts[xa + yb + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p111 = pts[xb + yb + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p211 = pts[xc + yb + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p021 = pts[xa + yc + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p121 = pts[xb + yc + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p221 = pts[xc + yc + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p002 = pts[xa + ya + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p102 = pts[xb + ya + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p202 = pts[xc + ya + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p012 = pts[xa + yb + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p112 = pts[xb + yb + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p212 = pts[xc + yb + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p022 = pts[xa + yc + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p122 = pts[xb + yc + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p222 = pts[xc + yc + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; xf = p->x - xi; x1 = xf * xf; x2 = 0.5 * x1; x1 = 0.5 + xf - x1; x0 = 0.5 - xf + x2; yf = p->y - yi; y1 = yf * yf; y2 = 0.5 * y1; y1 = 0.5 + yf - y1; y0 = 0.5 - yf + y2; zf = p->z - zi; z1 = zf * zf; z2 = 0.5 * z1; z1 = 0.5 + zf - z1; z0 = 0.5 - zf + z2; return z0 * (y0 * (x0 * p000 + x1 * p100 + x2 * p200) + y1 * (x0 * p010 + x1 * p110 + x2 * p210) + y2 * (x0 * p020 + x1 * p120 + x2 * p220)) + z1 * (y0 * (x0 * p001 + x1 * p101 + x2 * p201) + y1 * (x0 * p011 + x1 * p111 + x2 * p211) + y2 * (x0 * p021 + x1 * p121 + x2 * p221)) + z2 * (y0 * (x0 * p002 + x1 * p102 + x2 * p202) + y1 * (x0 * p012 + x1 * p112 + x2 * p212) + y2 * (x0 * p022 + x1 * p122 + x2 * p222)); } Vector Dnoise(p) Vector *p; { Vector v; int xi, yi, zi; int xa, xb, xc, ya, yb, yc, za, zb, zc; double xf, yf, zf; double x2, x1, x0, y2, y1, y0, z2, z1, z0; double xd2, xd1, xd0, yd2, yd1, yd0, zd2, zd1, zd0; double p000, p100, p200, p010, p110, p210, p020, p120, p220; double p001, p101, p201, p011, p111, p211, p021, p121, p221; double p002, p102, p202, p012, p112, p212, p022, p122, p222; xi = floor(p->x); xa = floor(P1 * (xi * phi - floor(xi * phi))); xb = floor(P1 * ((xi + 1) * phi - floor((xi + 1) * phi))); xc = floor(P1 * ((xi + 2) * phi - floor((xi + 2) * phi))); yi = floor(p->y); ya = floor(P2 * (yi * phi - floor(yi * phi))); yb = floor(P2 * ((yi + 1) * phi - floor((yi + 1) * phi))); yc = floor(P2 * ((yi + 2) * phi - floor((yi + 2) * phi))); zi = floor(p->z); za = floor(P3 * (zi * phi - floor(zi * phi))); zb = floor(P3 * ((zi + 1) * phi - floor((zi + 1) * phi))); zc = floor(P3 * ((zi + 2) * phi - floor((zi + 2) * phi))); p000 = pts[xa + ya + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p100 = pts[xb + ya + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p200 = pts[xc + ya + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p010 = pts[xa + yb + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p110 = pts[xb + yb + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p210 = pts[xc + yb + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p020 = pts[xa + yc + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p120 = pts[xb + yc + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p220 = pts[xc + yc + za & NUMPTS - 1]; p001 = pts[xa + ya + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p101 = pts[xb + ya + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p201 = pts[xc + ya + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p011 = pts[xa + yb + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p111 = pts[xb + yb + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p211 = pts[xc + yb + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p021 = pts[xa + yc + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p121 = pts[xb + yc + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p221 = pts[xc + yc + zb & NUMPTS - 1]; p002 = pts[xa + ya + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p102 = pts[xb + ya + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p202 = pts[xc + ya + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p012 = pts[xa + yb + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p112 = pts[xb + yb + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p212 = pts[xc + yb + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p022 = pts[xa + yc + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p122 = pts[xb + yc + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; p222 = pts[xc + yc + zc & NUMPTS - 1]; xf = p->x - xi; x1 = xf * xf; x2 = 0.5 * x1; x1 = 0.5 + xf - x1; x0 = 0.5 - xf + x2; xd2 = xf; xd1 = 1.0 - xf - xf; xd0 = xf - 1.0; yf = p->y - yi; y1 = yf * yf; y2 = 0.5 * y1; y1 = 0.5 + yf - y1; y0 = 0.5 - yf + y2; yd2 = yf; yd1 = 1.0 - yf - yf; yd0 = yf - 1.0; zf = p->z - zi; z1 = zf * zf; z2 = 0.5 * z1; z1 = 0.5 + zf - z1; z0 = 0.5 - zf + z2; zd2 = zf; zd1 = 1.0 - zf - zf; zd0 = zf - 1.0; v.x = z0 * (y0 * (xd0 * p000 + xd1 * p100 + xd2 * p200) + y1 * (xd0 * p010 + xd1 * p110 + xd2 * p210) + y2 * (xd0 * p020 + xd1 * p120 + xd2 * p220)) + z1 * (y0 * (xd0 * p001 + xd1 * p101 + xd2 * p201) + y1 * (xd0 * p011 + xd1 * p111 + xd2 * p211) + y2 * (xd0 * p021 + xd1 * p121 + xd2 * p221)) + z2 * (y0 * (xd0 * p002 + xd1 * p102 + xd2 * p202) + y1 * (xd0 * p012 + xd1 * p112 + xd2 * p212) + y2 * (xd0 * p022 + xd1 * p122 + xd2 * p222)); v.y = z0 * (yd0 * (x0 * p000 + x1 * p100 + x2 * p200) + yd1 * (x0 * p010 + x1 * p110 + x2 * p210) + yd2 * (x0 * p020 + x1 * p120 + x2 * p220)) + z1 * (yd0 * (x0 * p001 + x1 * p101 + x2 * p201) + yd1 * (x0 * p011 + x1 * p111 + x2 * p211) + yd2 * (x0 * p021 + x1 * p121 + x2 * p221)) + z2 * (yd0 * (x0 * p002 + x1 * p102 + x2 * p202) + yd1 * (x0 * p012 + x1 * p112 + x2 * p212) + yd2 * (x0 * p022 + x1 * p122 + x2 * p222)); v.z = zd0 * (y0 * (x0 * p000 + x1 * p100 + x2 * p200) + y1 * (x0 * p010 + x1 * p110 + x2 * p210) + y2 * (x0 * p020 + x1 * p120 + x2 * p220)) + zd1 * (y0 * (x0 * p001 + x1 * p101 + x2 * p201) + y1 * (x0 * p011 + x1 * p111 + x2 * p211) + y2 * (x0 * p021 + x1 * p121 + x2 * p221)) + zd2 * (y0 * (x0 * p002 + x1 * p102 + x2 * p202) + y1 * (x0 * p012 + x1 * p112 + x2 * p212) + y2 * (x0 * p022 + x1 * p122 + x2 * p222)); return v; }

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Eric Haines / [email protected]